American vs British English

American

British

中文

-a-(primeval) -ae- (primaeval) 早期的 zăo qī de,
原始(时代)的 yuán shĭ shí dài de
abbreviations (IBM, PRC) and acronyms (NASA, UNICEF) are all written in upper case. acronyms, that is a name that is composed of initial letters of other words, are written in title case (Nasa, Unicef)
abbreviations, that is a name that is composed of initial letters of other words, but each letter is pronounced individually are written in upper case (IBM, PRC).
缩写或首字母缩略词的规则
aerie eyrie (鹰等的)巢 yīng dĕng de cháo
高山住屋[城堡等] gāo shān zhù wū [chéng băo dĕng ]
airplane aeroplane 飞机 fēi jī
aluminum aluminium 铝 lǚ
annex annex (verb), annexe (noun, building annexe) 吞并 tūn bìng,偏厦 piān shà
antenna aerial 天线 tiān xiàn
anymore any more 再也 zài yě
apartment, apartment building flat, block of flats 公寓 gōng yù
artifact artefact 古器物 gǔ qì wù
人造物品 rén zào wù pĭn
arugula rocket, rocket salad 芝麻菜 zhī ma cài
ass arse 屁股 pì gu
蠢货 chǔn huò
smart ass 小聪明 xiǎo cōng ming
automobile car 汽车 qì chē
ax axe 斧头 fǔ tóu
backpack (in America, ‘rucksack’ is a framed pack used by the military) rucksack 双肩包 shuāng jiān bāo
baked potato jacket potato 烤土豆 kǎo tǔ dòu
bathrobe dressing gown 浴袍 yù páo
behoove (=to be necessary or fitting, due to moral or ethical considerations) behove 理应 lǐ yīng
beltway (Eastern U.S.) ring road (or orbital) 环形公路 huán xíng gōng lù
Big Dipper, the (constellation) Plough, the 北斗七星 běi dǒu qī xīng
blinker (turn signal) indicator 方向灯 fāng xiàng dēng
boogeyman bogeyman 夜魔 yè mó,老妖怪 lǎo yāo guài
briefs Y-fronts (男的)三角裤 sān jiǎo kù
candy sweets 糖果 táng guǒ
carburetor carburettor 化油器 huà yóu qì
cell phone (short for ‘cellular phone’, named for the areas or ‘cells’ covered by each transmitter tower) mobile phone 手机 shǒu jī
chamomile camomile 德国洋甘菊(学名:Matricaria recutita)dé guó yáng gān jú
(bank) check (paycheck, checking account) cheque (pay cheque, cheque account or current account) 支票 zhī piào
checker, checkered (checkered flag) chequer, chequered 方格 fāng gé
checkers (game) draughts 国际跳棋 guó jì tiào qí
chili, chile (Mexican Spanish) chilli 辣椒 là jiāo
circle, traffic circle roundabout 环岛 huán dǎo
collective nouns = singular
committee is, faculty is, family is, audience is
collective nouns = plural (usual)
committee (members) are, faculty are, family are, audience are
集合名词:在英式英语集合名词作为复数形式的名词,美式英语作为单数的。
cookie biscuit 饼干 bǐng gān,曲奇 qǔ qí
cot, a canvas bed on a folding metal frame used by soldiers etc camp bed 帆布床 fān bù chuáng
cotton candy candy floss 棉花糖 mián huā táng
cozy cosy 舒适 shū shì,温馨 wēn xīn
crib (baby’s bed), note that in America cot means a canvas bed on a metal frame. cot, in the UK crib means an expensive wooden baby bed 童床 tóng chuáng
crosswalk zebra crossing 斑马线 bān mǎ xiàn, 人行横道线 rén xíng héng dào xiàn
curb kerb 马路牙子 mă lù yá zi
dead battery (on a vehicle) flat battery 电池耗尽 diàn chí hào jìn, 电池没电了 diàn chí méi diàn le
defroster, defogger (on a vehicle) demister (车的)除雾器 chē de5 chú wù qì
dependent dependent (adjective), dependant (noun) 依赖 yī lài, 家属 jiā shǔ
detour (noun, traffic) diversion 绕行路 rào xíng lù
diaper nappy 尿布 niào bù
dike (levee)
dyke (lesbian)
dyke 河堤 hé dī, 女同性恋 nǚ tóng xìng liàn
dish towel tea towel (厨房用的)擦干布 chú fáng yòng de cā gān bù
disk
BUT
Compact Disc
disc
BUT
hard disk, floppy disk
磁碟 cí dié (硬盘 yìng pán), 光盘 guāng pán
dove (past tense of ‘to dive’) dived 跳水了 tiào shuǐ le (跳水的过去时态)
draft draft (verb), bank draft, draft (military conscription), draftsman (drafts legal documents) but otherwise
draught beer, draught horse, draught of air, draughtsman (draws plans)
撰拟 zhuàn nǐ, 起稿 qǐ gǎo, bank draft (America = teller’s check 银行支票 yín háng zhī piào), draft (military conscription 征兵制 zhēng bīng zhì), draftsman (drafts legal documents 法律草拟人员 fǎ lǜ cǎo nǐ rén yuán) but otherwise
draught beer (生啤 shēng pí), draught horse 挽车马 wǎn chē mǎ, draught of air 冷风 lěng fēng 气流 qì liú, draughtsman (draws plans 绘图员 huì tú yuán)
drunk driving drink-driving 醉酒驾车 zuì jiǔ jià chē
words with just an
-e- (eon, anemia, anesthesia, encyclopedia, diarrhea, esophagus, estrogen, feces, fetal, gynecology, hemoglobin, hemophilia, leukemia, estrogen, orthopedic, paleontology, pediatric)
-ae- (aeon, anaemia, anaesthesia, diarrhoea, encyclopaedia, faeces, gynaecology, haemoglobin, haemophilia, leukaemia, orthopaedic, palaeontology, paediatric)
OR
-oe- (diarrhoea, foetal, oesophagus, oestrogen)
aeon 宙 zhòu, anaemia 贫血 pín xuè, anaesthesia 麻醉 má zuì, diarrhoea 腹泻 fù xiè, encyclopaedia 百科全书 bǎi kē quán shū, faeces 粪便 fèn biàn, foetal 胎儿 tāi ér, gynaecology 妇科 fù kē, haemoglobin 血红蛋白 xuè hóng dàn bái, haemophilia 血友病 xuè yǒu bìng, leukaemia 白血病 bái xuè bìng, oesophagus 食管 shí guǎn, oestrogen 雌激素 cí jī sù, orthopaedic 矫形外科 jiǎo xíng wài kē, palaeontology 古生物学 gǔ shēng wù xué, paediatric 小儿科 xiǎo ér kē
elevator lift 电梯 diàn tī
eggplant aubergine 茄子 qié zi
-ense (nouns: defense, license, offense, pretense) -ence (nouns: defence, licence, offence, pretence) defense 防卫 fáng wèi, license 执照 zhí zhào, offense 有攻击性 yǒu gōng jī xìng, pretense 虚假 xū jiǎ
words ending in
-er (center, meter)
-re (centre, metre) centre 中心 zhōng xīn, metre (米制的)米 mǐ
eraser rubber (note in America ‘rubber’ means condom) 橡皮擦 xiàng pí cā
fall (between summer and winter) autumn 秋天 qiū tiān
faucet tap 水龙头 shuǐ lóng tóu
first floor ground floor (so what in most countries would be the second floor is called the ‘first floor’ in the UK) 首层 shǒu céng
flashlight torch 手电筒 shǒu diàn tǒng
freeway (western U.S.), interstate motorway 高速公路 gāo sù gōng lù
French fries chips 炸薯条 zhá shǔ tiáo
furor furore 骚乱 sāo luàn
galoshes, rubber boots Wellington boots, wellies 雨鞋 yǔ xié
garbage, trash rubbish 垃圾 lā jī
garters (stocking) suspenders 吊袜带 diào wà dài
gas, gasoline petrol 汽油 qì yóu
glycerin (Scientific term = glycerol) glycerine (Scientific term = glycerol) 甘油 gān yóu (科学名称 = 丙三醇 bǐng sān chún)
granddad, granddaddy grandad 爷爷 yé ye, 外公 wài gōng
gray grey 灰色 huī sè
highway dual carriageway 双车道公路 shuāng chē dào gōng lù
hood (on a vehicle) bonnet (车的)引擎盖 chē de yĭn qíng gài
inquiry inquiry (formal inquest), enquiry (act of questioning) inquiry.enquiry = 询问 xún wèn, inquiry = 指较深入的调查 (formal inquest = 协助警方调查等)
insure (financial = covered by insurance/taking necessary measures beforehand), BUT in American English ensure and insure are often interchangeably ensure (to make certain/ guarantee an outcome) cannot be used interchangeably with insure (financial = covered by insurance, ‘insure against fire damage’) ensure (to make certain) = 确保 què bǎo, 确定 què dìng, insure (covered by insurance) = 投保 tóu bǎo
words ending in
-ize (organize, realize)
BUTadvertise, advise, improvise, surprise
-ise (organise, realise)
Actually the “-ise” ending is just a less-used variant spelling in British English, and has no real justification (it comes from the French rather than the original Greek) but for some reason I prefer it.
美式拼写-ize/-ization结尾的单词英式英语中使用-ise/-isation结尾的单词
Jell-O jelly 果冻 guǒ dòng
kilogram (kg) It’s the same!
kilogram (kg)
kilogramme is an alternative, less common British English spelling, and that’s how it’s spelled in the original French
公斤 gōng jīn
single ‘l’ for inflections and noun suffixes
-l- (canceled, jewelry, traveler)
-ll (cancelled, jewellery, traveller)
idyll
英式英语拼写字母-ll-, 在美式英语只写-l-。
lawyer barrister (defends people in court, until recently wore wig and gown), solicitor (works outside the court), both types of lawyer lawyer = 律师 lǜ shī, barrister = (出庭的)大律师 chū tíng de dà lǜ shī, solicitor = 事务律师 shì wù lǜ shī
license, driver’s license, license plate licence (noun), license (verb), driving licence, number plate 执照 zhí zhào(noun), 批准 pī zhǔn, 授权 shòu quán (verb), 驾驶证 jià shǐ zhèng, 车牌
chē pái
licorice liquorice 甘草 gān cǎo
line queue 长队 cháng duì
mad angry 生气 shēng qì
mail, mailman, mailbox, but oddly The U.S. Post Office post, postman, postbox, post office and equally oddly The Royal Mail 邮件 yóu jiàn, 邮递员 yóu dì yuán, 邮箱 yóu xiāng, 邮局 yóu jú
main street high street 商业大街 shāng yè dà jiē
majored in(a subject at college or university) studied, informally you can also say ‘did’ or ‘took’
Note that in universities like Oxford or Cambridge you would say “read”, as in “He read philosophy at Cambridge”
学了(大学的某个专业)
maneuver manoeuvre (巧手)活动 qiǎo shǒu huó dòng,演习 yǎn xí
math maths 数学 shù xué
matte matte (film technique), matt (not gloss) 接景 jiē jǐng, 亚光 yà guāng
men’s room gents 男厕 nán cè
-ment (acknowledgment, judgment) -ement (acknowledgement, judgement) 以-ment结尾的名词
molasses treacle 糖蜜 táng mì
mollusk mollusc 软体动物 ruǎn tǐ dòng wù
mom, mommy mum, mummy 老妈 lǎo mā, 妈妈 mā ma
movie, movie theater film, cinema 电影 diàn yǐng, 电影院 diàn yǐng yuàn
mustache moustache 上唇的胡子 shàng chún de hú zi
naïveté (French pronunciation nɑːˈiːvᵊteɪ) naivety (British English pronunciation nɑːˈiːvᵊti) 天真 tiān zhēn, 轻信 qīng xìn
nearby near by (adverbial, end of sentence), nearby (adjectival, before noun) 附近 fù jìn
-o- (armor, humor, mold, molt, smolder) -ou- (armour, humour, mould, moult, smoulder) 英式英语拼写字母-ou-, 在美式英语只写-o-。(armour 盔甲 kuī jiǎ, humour 幽默 yōu mò, mould 霉菌 méi jūn / 模型 mó xíng, moult 换毛 huàn máo, smoulder 冒烟 mào yān)
omelet omelette 西式蛋饼 xī shì dàn bǐng
oriented orientated 面向 miàn xiàng
pacifier dummy 安抚奶嘴 ān fǔ nǎi zuǐ
pajamas pyjamas 睡衣 shuì yī
pants, though the word ‘trousers’ is understood in the US and used to mean upmarket pants, the kind you dryclean. trousers (in the UK ‘pants’ means underwear) 裤子 kù zi,在英国’pants’是内衣的意思。
pantyhose tights 连裤袜 lián kù wà
parking lot car park 停车场 tíng chē chǎng
percent per cent 百分之 bǎi fēn zhī
period (punctuation) full stop  句号 jù hào
pharmacy, drugstore chemist’s, pharmacy 药房 yào fáng
phone booth phone box 电话亭 diàn huà tíng
plaid tartan 格子呢 gé zi ní
plow plough 犁 lí,耕地 gēng dì
pop (verb) = to strike or knock sharply: hit pop something across, in, into etc (verb) = to put or take something somewhere quickly or suddenly 美式英语 = 击打 jī dǎ, 英式英语 = 赶快摆放
popsicle lolly, ice lolly 冰棒 bīng bàng,冰棍儿 bīng gùnr
potato chips crisps 土豆片 tǔ dòu piàn
prenatal antenatal 产前 chǎn qián
principal (school) headmaster 校长 xiào zhǎng
program programme, (computer) program programme = 节目 jié mù, (computer) program 编程 biān chéng
pruners (or clippers) secateurs 修枝剪 xiū zhī jiǎn
railroad railway 铁路 tiě lù
raise (in salary) rise 加薪 jiā xīn
reflectors (embedded in road) cats eyes 反光路丁 fǎn guāng lù dīng
(medical) regimen regime 治疗方案 zhì liáo fāng àn
rent (rent a car) hire (hire a car) 租用 (汽车等) zū yòng qì chē dĕng
reservations (verb – to reserve as in restaurant, hotel) bookings (verb – to book) 预订 yù dìng
restroom, bathroom loo 卫生间 wèi shēng jiān
right away (immediately) straight away 马上 mǎ shàng
rubber, prophylactic condom 避孕套 bì yùn tào
run (for office) stand (for election) 竞选 jìng xuǎn
schedule (train, bus, pronounced ‘skedual’) timetable (‘schedule’ in the UK is pronounced ‘shedual’ and refers to a list of planned events) 时刻表 shí kè biǎo
shopping cart shopping trolley 购物车 gòu wù chē
skeptic sceptic 怀疑者 huái yí zhě
sidewalk pavement 人行道 rén xíng dào
sleep in lie in 睡懒觉 shuì lǎn jiào
sled (small, for children), sledge (large, hauls loads) sledge 雪橇 xuě qiāo
sneakers trainers 运动鞋 yùn dòng xié
soccer football 足球 zú qiú
specialty speciality 专业 zhuān yè
sports sport 运动 yùn dòng
story, stories (floors of a building) storey, storeys 楼层 lóu céng
stroller (baby) pushchair 婴儿车 yīng ér chē
subway underground, the tube 地铁 dì tiě
sulfur, sulfate sulphur, sulphate 硫黄 liú huáng, 硫酸盐 liú suān yán
suspenders braces (in the UK, ‘suspenders’ means ‘garter’, an elastic strap that holds up a stocking) 背带 bēi dài
sweater jumper, pullover 毛衣 máo yī
takeout take away 外卖 wài mài
telephone booth telephone box 电话亭 diàn huà tíng
tidbit titbit 花絮 huā xù, 小片珍馐 xiăo piàn zhēn xiū
tire tyre 轮胎 lún tāi
toll-free freephone 免费电话 miăn fèi diàn huà
ton (American/short), metric ton tonne (metric), imperial/long ton 吨 dūn
trash can, trash bag rubbish bin, dustbin, bin, bin liner 垃圾桶 lā jī tǒng, 垃圾袋 lā jī dài
truck lorry 卡车 kǎ chē
trunk (on a vehicle) boot 后备箱 hòu bèi xiāng
turtle which technically is the name for the whole family of Chelonians, is used for both land and water turtles, terrapin is an Algonquin word for a few species of small fresh water turtles. tortoise (land) and turtle (water) 乌龟 wū guī
turtle neck polo neck, roll neck 高翻领毛衣 gāo fān lĭng máo yī
tv, television telly, television 电视 diàn shì
vacation holiday (note in American English holiday means ‘national and religious festivals’, Christmas Day, Thanksgiving, etc: In British English ‘holiday’ covers both) 假期 jià qī, (请注意:在美式英语中“holiday”指的是国家法定或者宗教的节日)
vacuum (noun and verb), vacuum cleaner(noun) hoover 吸尘器 xī chén qì
vest waistcoat (part of a suit, in the UK a vest is an undershirt, t-shirt) 马甲 mǎ jiǎ (男式西裝上衣的一部分)
vise (tool), vice (sin) vice 虎钳 hǔ qián (工具), 恶习 è xí (宗教的罪)
windshield windscreen 挡风玻璃 dǎng fēng bō li
wrack and ruin rack and ruin 荒废 huāng fèi
wrench spanner 扳手 bān shǒu
-yze (analyze, breathalyze, paralyze) -yse (analyse, breathalyse, paralyse) 美式拼写-yze结尾的单词英式英语中使用-yse 结尾的单词 (analyse = 分析 fēn xī, breathalyse = 酒测 jiǔ cè, paralyse = 麻痹 má bì,瘫痪 tān huàn)
ZIP code (an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan) post code 邮编 yóu biān
zucchini courgette 西葫芦 xī hú lu, 小瓜 xiăo guā

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